Pandémie de coronavirus




Pandémie de coronavirus 2019-2020

Pandémie de coronavirus 2019-2020

Carte des cas confirmés par habitant au 23 mars 2020

> 1 cas pour 1000 habitants



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Carte des cas confirmés

Carte du nombre total de cas confirmés au 23 mars 2020

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Carte des décès par habitant

Carte des décès par habitant au 21 mars 2020

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Chronologie des cas par habitant (glissable)

Cas cumulatifs confirmés de COVID-19 par habitant

Carte chronologique des cas confirmés par habitant (faites glisser le cercle pour ajuster; version plus grande)
Maladie Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Souche virale Syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère
coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) EmplacementMondial (liste des emplacements) Premier casWuhan, Hubei, Chine
30 ° 37′11 ″ N 114 ° 15′28 ″ E / 30.61972 ° N 114.25778 ° E / 30.61972; 114.25778 Date 1er décembre 2019 - présent[1]
(3 mois et 3 semaines) Cas confirmés 358 000+[2][3]Récupéré 100 000+[2][3]

Des morts

15 400+[2][3]

Territoires

190+[2][3]

le Pandémie de coronavirus 2019-2020 est une pandémie de coronavirus en cours 2019 (COVID-19), causée par le syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère coronavirus 2 (SRAS-CoV-2).[4] L'épidémie a été identifiée pour la première fois à Wuhan, Hubei, Chine, en décembre 2019, et a été reconnue comme pandémie par l'Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) le 11 mars 2020.[5] Au 23 mars, plus de 358 000 cas de COVID-19 avaient été signalés dans plus de 190 pays et territoires, entraînant plus de 15 400 décès et plus de 100 000 guérisons.[2][3]

Le virus se transmet généralement d'une personne à une autre via des gouttelettes respiratoires produites pendant la toux.[6][7] Principalement, il se propage lorsque les personnes sont en contact étroit, mais il peut également se propager lorsque l'on touche une surface contaminée puis leur visage.[8] Elle est plus contagieuse lorsque les personnes présentent des symptômes, bien qu'une propagation puisse être possible avant l'apparition des symptômes.[9] Le délai entre l'exposition et l'apparition des symptômes est généralement d'environ cinq jours, mais peut aller de deux à quatorze jours.[7][10] Les symptômes courants sont la fièvre, la toux et l'essoufflement.[7][10] Les complications peuvent inclure la pneumonie et le syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë. Il n'y a pas de vaccin ni de traitement antiviral spécifique. Le traitement primaire est une thérapie symptomatique et de soutien. Les mesures préventives recommandées comprennent le lavage des mains, la couverture de la bouche lors de la toux, le maintien de la distance par rapport aux autres personnes et la surveillance et l'auto-isolement des personnes qui soupçonnent qu'elles sont infectées.[8][7][11]

Les efforts pour empêcher la propagation du virus comprennent les restrictions de voyage, les quarantaines, les couvre-feux, les reports et annulations d'événements et les fermetures d'installations. Il s'agit notamment d'une quarantaine du Hubei, de quarantaines nationales en Italie et ailleurs en Europe, de mesures de couvre-feu ailleurs en Chine et en Corée du Sud,[12][13][14] diverses fermetures de frontières ou restrictions de passagers entrants,[15][16] contrôle dans les aéroports et les gares,[17] et des conseils aux voyageurs concernant les régions à transmission communautaire.[18][19][20][21]Les écoles et les universités ont fermé leurs portes à l'échelle nationale ou locale dans plus de 124 pays, touchant plus de 1,2 milliard d'étudiants.[22]

La pandémie a entraîné des perturbations socioéconomiques mondiales,[23] le report ou l'annulation d'événements sportifs, religieux et culturels,[24] et les craintes généralisées de pénuries d'approvisionnement qui ont provoqué des achats de panique.[25][26]Les théories de désinformation et de complot sur le virus se sont propagées en ligne,[27][28] et il y a eu des incidents de xénophobie et de racisme contre des Chinois et d'autres peuples d'Asie de l'Est ou du Sud-Est.[29] Les dirigeants politiques en Allemagne et en Italie ont qualifié la pandémie de crise mondiale la plus importante à laquelle leurs nations soient confrontées depuis la Seconde Guerre mondiale.[30][31][32]

Épidémiologie

Les autorités sanitaires de Wuhan, la capitale de la province du Hubei, en Chine, ont signalé un groupe de cas de pneumonie de cause inconnue le 31 décembre 2019,[217] et une enquête a été lancée début janvier 2020.[218] Les cas étaient pour la plupart liés au marché de gros des fruits de mer de Huanan et le virus serait donc d'origine zoonotique.[219] Le virus à l'origine de l'épidémie est connu sous le nom de SARS-CoV-2, un virus récemment découvert, étroitement lié aux coronavirus de chauve-souris,[220]coronavirus du pangolin[221] et SARS-CoV.[222]

La première personne présentant des symptômes remonte au 1er décembre 2019, une personne qui n'avait aucun lien avec la dernière grappe liée au marché humide.[223][224] Parmi les premiers cas signalés en décembre 2019, les deux tiers avaient un lien avec le marché.[1][225][226] Le 14 mars 2020, un rapport non vérifié de la South China Morning Post a déclaré qu'un homme de 55 ans de la province du Hubei aurait pu être la première personne à avoir contracté la maladie, le 17 novembre.[227][228]

Le 26 février 2020, l'OMS a signalé que, comme de nouveaux cas auraient chuté en Chine mais auraient soudainement augmenté en Italie, en Iran et en Corée du Sud, le nombre de nouveaux cas en dehors de la Chine avait dépassé le nombre de nouveaux cas en Chine pour la première fois.[229] Il peut y avoir une sous-déclaration substantielle des cas, en particulier ceux présentant des symptômes plus bénins.[230][231] Au 26 février, relativement peu de cas avaient été signalés chez les jeunes, les 19 ans et moins représentant 2,4% des cas dans le monde.[10][232]

Des sources gouvernementales en Allemagne et au Royaume-Uni estiment que 60 à 70% de la population devra être infectée avant de pouvoir obtenir une immunité collective efficace.[233][234][235]

Des morts

Le taux brut de mortalité (décès signalés divisé par les cas signalés) est de 3 à 4%, selon l'Organisation mondiale de la santé, au 6 mars 2020.[236] Le taux signalé varie selon le pays, l'âge et d'autres problèmes de santé.[237]

Le délai entre l'apparition des symptômes et la mort a été compris entre 6 et 41 jours, le plus courant étant de 14 jours.[10] Au 21 mars, plus de 11 400 décès avaient été attribués à COVID-19.[238] La plupart des personnes décédées étaient des personnes âgées - environ 80% des décès concernaient des personnes de plus de 60 ans et 75% avaient des problèmes de santé préexistants, notamment des maladies cardiovasculaires et du diabète.[239]

Le premier décès confirmé a eu lieu le 9 janvier 2020 à Wuhan.[240] Le premier décès hors de Chine est survenu le 1er février aux Philippines,[241][242] et le premier décès hors d'Asie a eu lieu en France le 14 février.[243] Au 28 février, en dehors de la Chine continentale, plus d'une douzaine de décès chacun avaient été enregistrés en Iran, en Corée du Sud et en Italie.[244][245][246] Au 13 mars, plus de 40 pays et territoires avaient signalé des décès sur tous les continents sauf en Antarctique.[247]

Le pays avec le taux de mortalité le plus élevé, avec au moins 100 cas confirmés, est Saint-Marin.[248] Il présente également le pourcentage le plus élevé de cas confirmés par habitant, à 0,56% (au 22 mars), soit 1 cas confirmé pour 179 habitants.[249] En outre, avec 20 décès confirmés (au 22 mars), le pays a le taux le plus élevé de décès confirmés par habitant, à 0,06% de la population totale - 1 décès pour 1 668 habitants.[249]

La République tchèque est l'un des pays où le nombre de cas confirmés est le plus élevé (1 047) et qui n'a toujours pas enregistré de décès au 21 mars.[250] Auparavant, l'Allemagne comptait le plus grand nombre de cas confirmés (847), toujours sans décès au 8 mars.[251]

Diagrammes

  • Nombre total de cas confirmés de COVID-19 par million d'habitants, 20 mars 2020[252]

  • Total des décès confirmés dus au COVID-19 par million d'habitants, 20 mars 2020[253]

  • Croissance du nombre total de cas confirmés

  • Courbe épidémique de COVID-19 par date de rapport

  • Diagramme semi-journalier des nouveaux cas confirmés par jour par région: province du Hubei, Chine continentale à l'exclusion du Hubei, reste du monde (emprise) et total mondial[254][255]

  • Diagramme semi-journalier des décès quotidiens de coronavirus par région: province du Hubei, Chine continentale à l'exclusion du Hubei, du reste du monde (ROW) et du total mondial[254][255]

  • Graphique semi-logarithmique des cas dans certains pays à taux de croissance élevé (après la Chine) avec des temps de doublement et des projections sur trois jours sur la base des taux de croissance exponentiels

Signes et symptômes

Les symptômes de COVID-19 ne sont pas spécifiques et les personnes infectées peuvent être asymptomatiques ou développer des symptômes pseudo-grippaux tels que fièvre, toux, fatigue, essoufflement ou douleur musculaire. Les signes et symptômes typiques et leur prévalence sont indiqués dans le tableau correspondant.[256] Les Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) énumèrent les symptômes d'urgence, notamment des difficultés à respirer, une douleur ou une pression thoracique persistante, une confusion soudaine, des difficultés à se réveiller et un visage ou des lèvres bleuâtres; une attention médicale immédiate est conseillée si ces symptômes sont présents.[258]

Un développement ultérieur de la maladie peut entraîner une pneumonie grave, un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë, une septicémie, un choc septique et la mort. Certaines des personnes infectées peuvent être asymptomatiques, renvoyant des résultats de test qui confirment l'infection mais ne montrent aucun symptôme clinique.Les chercheurs ont donc recommandé que les personnes en contact étroit avec des personnes infectées confirmées soient étroitement surveillées et examinées pour exclure l'infection.[1][259][260][261] Les estimations chinoises du rapport asymptomatique varient de quelques à 44%.[262]

La période d'incubation habituelle (le temps entre l'infection et l'apparition des symptômes) varie de un à quatorze jours; il s'agit le plus souvent de cinq jours.[263][264] Dans un cas, il peut avoir eu une période d'incubation de 27 jours.[265]

Cause

Transmission

Le principal mode de transmission se fait via des gouttelettes respiratoires que les gens expirent ou toussent.[266] On pense que cela se produit lorsque les gens sont en contact étroit, souvent pendant la toux ou les éternuements.[267][268] Le Centre européen de prévention et de contrôle des maladies (ECDC) convient qu'il semble se propager via ces gouttelettes, mais "[t]il n'y a pas assez d'informations épidémiologiques pour le moment [23 March] pour déterminer avec quelle facilité et durabilité ce virus se propage entre les gens. "[6] On pense que la stabilité du virus du SRAS-CoV-2 dans l'air et sur diverses surfaces est comparable à celle d'autres coronavirus.[269][270][271]

Une seule étude de la durée pendant laquelle le SRAS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) reste infectieux sur diverses surfaces ", montrent[s] que lorsque le virus est transporté par les gouttelettes libérées lorsque quelqu'un tousse ou éternue, il reste viable, ou capable d'infecter encore des personnes, dans des aérosols pendant au moins trois heures. "[272]

Ils ont également testé le SRAS-CoV-2 sur du plastique, de l'acier inoxydable, du cuivre et du carton, et ont constaté que, bien que le SRAS-CoV-2 se soit dégradé de façon exponentielle au fil du temps dans les cinq environnements testés, le virus était viable pour une infection jusqu'à trois jours. sur plastique et acier inoxydable, pendant une journée sur carton, et jusqu'à quatre heures sur cuivre.[273][274][275]

Une enquête sur la recherche sur l'inactivation d'autres coronavirus à l'aide de divers agents biocides suggère que la désinfection des surfaces contaminées par le SRAS-CoV-2 peut également être réalisée en utilisant des solutions similaires (dans la minute suivant l'exposition sur une surface en acier inoxydable), y compris 62–71% éthanol, 50 à 100% d'isopropanol, 0,1% d'hypochlorite de sodium, 0,5% de peroxyde d'hydrogène et 0,2 à 7,5% de povidone-iode; le chlorure de benzalkonium et le gluconate de chlorhexidine sont moins efficaces.[269]

L'OMS a déclaré que le risque de propagation d'une personne sans symptômes est "très faible". Cependant, si quelqu'un présente des symptômes précoces et une toux légère, il existe un risque de transmission.[276] Une analyse des infections à Singapour et à Tianjin, en Chine, a révélé que les infections à coronavirus peuvent se propager par des personnes qui ont récemment attrapé le virus et n'ont pas encore commencé à montrer des symptômes, contrairement à d'autres coronavirus tels que le SRAS.[277][278]

Les estimations du nombre de reproduction de base (le nombre moyen de personnes qu'une personne infectée est susceptible d'infecter) varient de 2,13[279] à 4.82.[280][281] Ceci est similaire à la mesure typique du coronavirus lié au syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS-CoV).[282]

Virologie

Illustration du virion SARSr-CoV

Le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère 2 (SRAS-CoV-2) est un nouveau coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère, d'abord isolé de trois personnes atteintes de pneumonie liées au groupe de cas de maladies respiratoires aiguës à Wuhan.[222] Toutes les caractéristiques du nouveau virus SARS-CoV-2 se retrouvent dans des coronavirus apparentés dans la nature.[283]

Le SARS-CoV-2 est étroitement lié au SARS-CoV d'origine.[284] On pense qu'il a une origine zoonotique. Une analyse génétique a révélé que le coronavirus se regroupait génétiquement avec le genre Betacoronavirus, dans le sous-genre Sarbecovirus (lignée B) avec deux souches dérivées de chauves-souris. Il est identique à 96% au niveau du génome entier aux autres échantillons de coronavirus de chauve-souris (BatCov RaTG13).[256][285] En février 2020, des chercheurs chinois ont découvert qu'il n'y a qu'une seule différence d'acides aminés dans certaines parties des séquences du génome entre les virus des pangolins et ceux des humains, cependant, la comparaison du génome entier à ce jour a trouvé au plus 92% du matériel génétique partagé entre le pangolin coronavirus et SARS-CoV-2, ce qui est insuffisant pour prouver que les pangolins sont l'hôte intermédiaire.[286]

Diagnostic

L'infection par le virus peut être diagnostiquée provisoirement sur la base des symptômes, bien que la confirmation se fasse finalement par réaction en chaîne par polymérase à transcription inverse (rRT-PCR) des sécrétions infectées (sensibilité 71%) et imagerie CT (sensibilité 98%).[287]

Test viral

L'OMS a publié plusieurs protocoles de test d'ARN pour le SRAS-CoV-2, dont le premier a été publié le 17 janvier.[288][289][290][291] Les tests utilisent la réaction de polymérisation en chaîne par transcription inverse en temps réel (rRT-PCR).[292] Le test peut être effectué sur des échantillons respiratoires ou sanguins.[293] Les résultats sont généralement disponibles en quelques heures à quelques jours.[294][295]

Une personne est considérée à risque si elle s'est rendue dans une zone où la transmission communautaire est en cours au cours des 14 derniers jours ou si elle a été en contact étroit avec une personne infectée. Les indicateurs clés courants sont la fièvre, la toux et l'essoufflement. D'autres indicateurs possibles incluent la fatigue, la myalgie, l'anorexie, la production d'expectorations et le mal de gorge.[296]

Imagerie

Les caractéristiques d'imagerie caractéristiques des radiographies et de la tomodensitométrie ont été décrites dans une série limitée de cas.[297] Société italienne de radiologie [it] est en train de compiler une base de données internationale en ligne des résultats d'imagerie pour les cas confirmés.[298] En raison du chevauchement avec d'autres infections telles que l'adénovirus, l'imagerie sans confirmation par PCR est d'une utilité limitée pour identifier COVID-19.[297] Un plus grand[[[[clarification nécessaire]la comparaison des résultats de la TDM thoracique à la PCR a suggéré que, bien que l'imagerie soit moins spécifique à l'infection, elle est nettement plus rapide et plus sensible, ce qui suggère qu'elle peut être considérée comme un outil de dépistage dans les zones épidémiques.[299]

La prévention

Les stratégies pour prévenir la transmission de la maladie comprennent une bonne hygiène personnelle générale, le lavage des mains, éviter de toucher les yeux, le nez ou la bouche avec des mains non lavées, la toux / éternuements dans un mouchoir et la mise du tissu directement dans une poubelle. Ceux qui peuvent déjà avoir l'infection ont été invités à porter un masque chirurgical en public.[300][301][302]Des mesures de distanciation sociale sont également recommandées pour empêcher la transmission.[303][304]

De nombreux gouvernements ont restreint ou déconseillé tous les voyages non essentiels à destination et en provenance des pays et régions touchés par l'épidémie.[305] Cependant, le virus a atteint le stade de propagation communautaire dans de grandes parties du monde. Cela signifie que le virus se propage au sein des communautés dont les membres n'ont pas voyagé dans des zones de transmission généralisée.[[[[citation requise]

Il est recommandé aux prestataires de soins de santé qui prennent soin d'une personne infectée d'utiliser les précautions standard, les précautions contre les contacts et les précautions contre les risques atmosphériques avec protection oculaire.[306]

La recherche des contacts est une méthode importante pour les autorités sanitaires afin de déterminer la source d'une infection et d'empêcher une nouvelle transmission.[307] Des idées fausses circulent sur la façon de prévenir l'infection, par exemple: se rincer le nez et se gargariser avec un rince-bouche ne sont pas efficaces.[308] Au 13 mars 2020, il n'y avait pas de vaccin COVID-19, bien qu'un certain nombre d'organisations travaillent à en développer un.[309]

Lavage des mains

Le lavage des mains est recommandé pour prévenir la propagation de la maladie. Le CDC recommande que les gens se lavent souvent les mains avec du savon et de l'eau pendant au moins 20 secondes, surtout après être allé aux toilettes ou lorsque les mains sont visiblement sales; avant de manger; et après s'être mouché, toussé ou éternué. Il a en outre recommandé d'utiliser un désinfectant pour les mains à base d'alcool contenant au moins 60% d'alcool en volume lorsque le savon et l'eau ne sont pas facilement disponibles.[300] L'OMS conseille aux gens d'éviter de toucher les yeux, le nez ou la bouche avec des mains non lavées.[301][310]

Hygiène respiratoire

Les organismes de santé ont recommandé aux gens de se couvrir la bouche et le nez avec un coude plié ou un mouchoir lorsqu'ils toussent ou éternuent (le mouchoir doit ensuite être jeté immédiatement).[301][311]Les masques chirurgicaux sont recommandés pour ceux qui peuvent être infectés,[312][313][314] car le port d'un masque peut limiter le volume et la distance de déplacement des gouttelettes expiratoires dispersées lors des conversations, des éternuements et de la toux.[315] L'OMS a publié des instructions sur quand et comment utiliser les masques.[316]

Les masques ont également été recommandés pour ceux qui prennent soin de quelqu'un qui peut avoir la maladie.[314] L'OMS a recommandé le port de masques aux personnes en bonne santé uniquement si elles présentent un risque élevé, comme celles qui prennent soin d'une personne atteinte de COVID-19, bien que les masques puissent aider les gens à éviter de se toucher le visage.[314]

La Chine a spécifiquement recommandé l'utilisation de masques médicaux jetables par des membres sains du public.[317][254][315][318] Hong Kong recommande de porter un masque chirurgical lorsque vous prenez les transports en commun ou restez dans des endroits surpeuplés.[319] Les autorités sanitaires thaïlandaises encouragent les gens à fabriquer des masques à la maison en tissu et à les laver quotidiennement.[320] La République tchèque a interdit de sortir en public sans porter de masque ni se couvrir le nez et la bouche.[321] Les masques faciaux ont également été largement utilisés par des personnes en bonne santé à Taiwan,[322][323] Japon,[324] Corée du Sud,[325] Malaisie,[326] Singapour,[327][328] et Hong Kong.[329]

Distanciation sociale

La distanciation sociale comprend des actions de contrôle des infections destinées à ralentir la propagation des maladies en minimisant les contacts étroits entre les individus. Les méthodes comprennent les quarantaines; restrictions de voyage; et la fermeture d'écoles, de lieux de travail, de stades, de théâtres ou de centres commerciaux. Les individus peuvent appliquer des méthodes de distanciation sociale en restant à la maison, en limitant les déplacements, en évitant les zones surpeuplées, en utilisant des salutations sans contact et en se distanciant physiquement des autres.[330][331] De nombreux gouvernements imposent ou recommandent désormais une distanciation sociale dans les régions touchées par l'épidémie.[332][333] La taille autorisée des rassemblements passait rapidement de 250 personnes (s'il n'y avait pas de propagation connue de COVID-19 dans une région) à 50 personnes, puis à 10 personnes.[334] Le 22 mars 2020, l'Allemagne a interdit les rassemblements publics de plus de deux personnes.[335]

Les adultes plus âgés et ceux qui ont des conditions médicales sous-jacentes telles que le diabète, les maladies cardiaques, les maladies respiratoires, l'hypertension et les systèmes immunitaires affaiblis font face à un risque accru de maladie grave et de complications et ont été conseillés par le CDC américain de rester à la maison autant que possible éclosion communautaire.[336][337]

Auto-isolement

La transmission du COVID dépend de nombreux facteurs, et le nombre de reproduction de base peut être abaissé en prenant des mesures de prévention des épidémies telles que la distanciation sociale et l'auto-isolement lors des symptômes.

L'auto-isolement à la maison a été recommandé pour les personnes diagnostiquées avec COVID-19 et celles qui soupçonnent qu'elles ont été infectées. Les agences de santé ont publié des instructions détaillées pour une auto-isolation appropriée.[338][339]

En outre, de nombreux gouvernements ont mandaté ou recommandé l'auto-quarantaine pour des populations entières vivant dans les zones touchées.[340][341] Les instructions d'auto-quarantaine les plus strictes ont été délivrées à ceux des groupes à haut risque. Ceux qui peuvent avoir été exposés à une personne atteinte de COVID-19 et ceux qui ont récemment voyagé dans un pays où la transmission est généralisée ont été invités à s'auto-mettre en quarantaine pendant 14 jours à compter de la dernière exposition possible.[8][7][342]

La gestion

Déclenchement

L'objectif de l'atténuation communautaire, (1) retarder le pic de l'épidémie (2) décompresser le pic de la charge sur les soins de santé, connu sous le nom d'aplatir la courbe (3), diminuer les cas globaux[[[[contesté - discuter]et l'impact sur la santé.[343][344]

Il existe un certain nombre de stratégies pour contrôler une éclosion: endiguement, atténuation et suppression. Le confinement est entrepris dans les premiers stades de l'épidémie et vise à retracer et à isoler les personnes infectées ainsi que d'autres mesures de contrôle des infections et de vaccinations pour empêcher la propagation de la maladie au reste de la population. Lorsqu'il n'est plus possible de contenir la propagation de la maladie, les efforts passent alors au stade de l'atténuation, lorsque des mesures sont prises pour ralentir la propagation et atténuer ses effets sur le système de santé et la société. Une combinaison de mesures de confinement et d'atténuation peut être entreprise en même temps.[345] La suppression nécessite des mesures plus extrêmes pour inverser la pandémie en réduisant le nombre de reproduction de base à moins de 1.[346]

Une partie de la gestion d'une éclosion de maladie infectieuse consiste à réduire le pic épidémique, connu sous le nom d'aplatissement de la courbe épidémique.[343] Cela diminue le risque de saturation des services de santé et donne plus de temps pour développer des vaccins et des traitements.[343] Les interventions non pharmaceutiques qui peuvent gérer l'épidémie comprennent des mesures préventives personnelles, telles que l'hygiène des mains, le port de masques faciaux et l'auto-quarantaine; des mesures communautaires visant à éloigner la société, telles que la fermeture des écoles et l'annulation des événements de rassemblement de masse; l'engagement communautaire pour encourager l'acceptation et la participation à de telles interventions; ainsi que des mesures environnementales telles que le nettoyage des surfaces.

Des mesures plus drastiques visant à supprimer l'épidémie ont été prises en Chine une fois que la gravité de l'épidémie est apparue, comme la mise en quarantaine de villes entières affectant 60 millions d'individus dans le Hubei, et des interdictions strictes de voyager.[348] D'autres pays ont adopté diverses mesures visant à limiter la propagation du virus. Par exemple, la Corée du Sud a mis en place un filtrage de masse, des quarantaines localisées et des alertes sur les mouvements des personnes touchées. Singapour a fourni un soutien financier aux personnes infectées qui se mettent en quarantaine et a infligé de lourdes amendes à ceux qui ne l'ont pas fait. Taïwan a augmenté la production de masques faciaux et pénalisé la thésaurisation des fournitures médicales.[349] Certains pays exigent que les gens signalent les symptômes pseudo-grippaux à leur médecin, surtout s'ils ont visité la Chine continentale.[350]

Les simulations pour la Grande-Bretagne et les États-Unis montrent que l'atténuation (ralentissement mais non arrêt de la propagation de l'épidémie), ainsi que la suppression (inversion de la croissance épidémique), posent des défis majeurs.
Des politiques d'atténuation optimales pourraient réduire les pics de demande de soins de santé de 2/3 et les décès de moitié, entraînant toujours des centaines de milliers de décès et des systèmes de santé dépassés.
La suppression peut être préférée mais doit être maintenue jusqu'à ce qu'un vaccin soit disponible (au moins 18 mois plus tard) car la transmission rebondit rapidement lorsqu'elle est relâchée, tandis qu'une intervention à long terme entraîne des coûts sociaux et économiques.[346]

Maladies

Il n'y a aucun médicament antiviral spécifique approuvé pour COVID-19, mais des efforts de développement sont en cours, y compris des tests de médicaments existants. Les tentatives pour soulager les symptômes peuvent inclure la prise régulière de médicaments contre le rhume (en vente libre),[351] boire des liquides et se reposer.[300] Selon la gravité, une oxygénothérapie, des fluides intraveineux et une assistance respiratoire peuvent être nécessaires.[352] L'utilisation de stéroïdes peut aggraver les résultats.[353] Plusieurs composés, précédemment approuvés pour le traitement d'autres maladies virales, sont à l'étude.[354]

Histoire

Cas par pays tracés sur une échelle logarithmique

Patient zéro est le terme utilisé pour décrire le tout premier cas de maladie.[355] Il existe diverses théories quant à l'origine du cas du «patient zéro».[355] Le premier cas connu du nouveau coronavirus a été retracé au 1er décembre 2019 à Wuhan, Hubei, Chine.[223] Une affirmation non confirmée plus tard, citant des documents du gouvernement chinois, suggère que la première victime était un homme de 55 ans tombé malade le 17 novembre 2019.[356][under discussion] Au cours du mois suivant, le nombre de cas de coronavirus dans le Hubei est progressivement passé à quelques centaines, avant d'augmenter rapidement en janvier 2020. Le 31 décembre 2019, le virus avait causé suffisamment de cas de pneumonie inconnue à signaler aux autorités sanitaires de Wuhan, la capitale de la province du Hubei,[217] pour déclencher une enquête.[218] Celles-ci étaient principalement liées au marché de gros des fruits de mer de Huanan, qui vendait également des animaux vivants; on pense donc que le virus a une origine zoonotique.[219]

Pendant les premiers stades, le nombre de cas a doublé tous les sept jours et demi environ.[357] Au début et à la mi-janvier 2020, le virus s'est propagé dans d'autres provinces chinoises, aidé par la migration du Nouvel An chinois, Wuhan étant une plaque tournante du transport et un important échangeur ferroviaire, et les infections se sont rapidement propagées dans tout le pays.[256] Le 20 janvier, la Chine a signalé près de 140 nouveaux cas en une journée, dont deux à Pékin et un à Shenzhen.[358] Des données officielles ultérieures montrent que 6174 personnes avaient déjà développé des symptômes au 20 janvier 2020.[359]

Le 30 janvier, l'OMS a déclaré que l'épidémie était une urgence de santé publique de portée internationale.[360] Le 24 février, le directeur de l'OMS, Tedros Adhanom, a averti que le virus pourrait devenir une pandémie mondiale en raison du nombre croissant de cas en dehors de la Chine.[361]

Le 11 mars, l'OMS a officiellement déclaré que l'épidémie de coronavirus était une pandémie, après une période de transmission soutenue au niveau communautaire dans plusieurs régions du monde.[5] Le 13 mars, l'OMS a déclaré que l'Europe était le nouveau centre de la pandémie après que le taux de nouveaux cas européens ait dépassé celui des régions du monde en dehors de la Chine.[362] Au 16 mars 2020, le nombre total de cas signalés dans le monde hors de Chine dépassait celui de la Chine continentale.[363] Le 19 mars 2020, la Chine n'a signalé aucun nouveau cas d'origine nationale (à l'exception des cas réimportés de l'étranger) pour la première fois depuis l'épidémie, tandis que le nombre total de décès en Italie a dépassé celui de la Chine.[364]

Au 23 mars 2020[update], plus de 358 000 cas ont été signalés dans le monde; plus de 15 300 personnes sont mortes et plus de 100 000 se sont rétablies.[2][3]

Réponses nationales

Plus de 170 territoires ont connu au moins un cas.[365] En raison de la pandémie en Europe, plusieurs pays de l'espace Schengen ont restreint la libre circulation et mis en place des contrôles aux frontières.[366] Les réactions nationales ont inclus des mesures de confinement telles que les quarantaines et les couvre-feux.[367] Au 21 mars, plus de 250 millions de personnes étaient en détention en Europe,[368] et plus de 100 millions de personnes sont en détention aux États-Unis.[369]

Chine

La première personne connue pour être tombée malade à cause du nouveau virus a été retracée au 1er décembre 2019 à Wuhan.[223] Le docteur Zhang Jixian a observé un groupe de pneumonie inconnue le 26 décembre, et son hôpital a informé Wuhan Jianghan CDC le 27 décembre.[370] Un avis public sur l'épidémie a été publié par la Commission de la santé municipale de Wuhan le 31 décembre.[371] L'OMS a été informée de l'épidémie le même jour.[217] Parallèlement à ces notifications, les médecins de Wuhan étaient menacés par la politique de partage des informations sur l'épidémie.[372]La Commission nationale chinoise de la santé a initialement déclaré qu’elle ne disposait pas de «preuves claires» de transmissions interhumaines.[373]

Hôpital temporaire pour le traitement des patients atteints de COVID-19 légers à Wuhan, converti du centre sportif de Tazihu. Il y avait plus de 10 hôpitaux temporaires comme celui-ci à Wuhan. Chacun d'eux pouvait accueillir des centaines de patients bénins. Après la mise en service de ces hôpitaux, l'épidémie de Wuhan s'est atténuée.[374][375]

Le Parti communiste chinois a lancé une campagne radicale décrite par le secrétaire général du Parti Xi Jinping comme une "guerre populaire" pour contenir la propagation du virus.[376] Dans ce qui a été décrit comme "la plus grande quarantaine de l'histoire de l'humanité",[377] une mise en quarantaine a été annoncée le 23 janvier, empêchant les voyages à destination et en provenance de Wuhan,[378] qui a été étendu à un total de 15 villes du Hubei, touchant un total d'environ 57 millions de personnes.[379] L'utilisation de véhicules privés a été interdite dans la ville.[380]Les célébrations du Nouvel An chinois (25 janvier) ont été annulées dans de nombreux endroits.[381] Les autorités ont également annoncé la construction d'un hôpital temporaire, l'hôpital de Huoshenshan, qui a été achevé en 10 jours, et 14 hôpitaux temporaires ont été construits en Chine au total.[382]

Le 26 janvier, le Parti communiste et le gouvernement ont institué de nouvelles mesures pour contenir l'épidémie de COVID-19, notamment des déclarations de santé pour les voyageurs et des modifications des jours fériés.[383] Le groupe dirigeant a décidé de prolonger les vacances de la Fête du Printemps pour contenir l'épidémie.[384] Les universités et les écoles du pays ont également été fermées.[385][386][387] Les régions de Hong Kong et de Macao ont institué plusieurs mesures, notamment en ce qui concerne les écoles et les universités.[388]Des mesures de travail à distance ont été instituées dans plusieurs régions chinoises.[389] Des restrictions de voyage ont été promulguées.[389][390] D'autres provinces et villes en dehors du Hubei ont imposé des restrictions de voyage. Les transports publics ont été modifiés,[391][389] et les musées de toute la Chine ont été temporairement fermés.[392][393] Le contrôle de la circulation des personnes a été appliqué dans de nombreuses villes, et il a été estimé que plus de la moitié de la population chinoise, soit environ 760 millions de personnes, faisait face à certaines formes de restriction à l'extérieur.[394]

Après que l'épidémie soit entrée dans sa phase mondiale en mars, de nombreux étudiants chinois étudiant en Europe et aux États-Unis sont rentrés chez eux alors que les nouveaux cas quotidiens en Chine diminuaient. Les autorités chinoises ont pris des mesures strictes pour empêcher le virus "d'importer" d'autres pays. Par exemple, Pékin a imposé une quarantaine obligatoire de 14 jours à tous les voyageurs internationaux entrant dans la ville.[395]

La réponse rapide des autorités de Wuhan a été critiquée comme donnant la priorité au contrôle des informations qui pourraient être défavorables aux responsables locaux sur la sécurité publique, et le gouvernement chinois a également été critiqué pour avoir dissimulé et minimisé la découverte initiale et la gravité de l'épidémie.[396] Début janvier 2020, la police de Wuhan a convoqué et "réprimandé" plusieurs médecins - dont Li Wenliang, un ophtalmologiste de l'hôpital central de Wuhan - pour avoir "répandu des rumeurs" comparant la maladie au SRAS.[397] Li est décédé plus tard à cause du virus.[398] Plus tard en mars, la police de Wuhan s'est excusée auprès de la famille de Li après que la Commission nationale de surveillance a reconnu que la conduite des responsables locaux était inadéquate et a reconnu les efforts du dénonciateur pour sensibiliser le public.[399][400] Les observateurs ont également blâmé la censure institutionnelle qui a laissé aux citoyens et aux hauts responsables des informations inexactes sur l'épidémie et "a contribué à une longue période d'inaction qui a permis au virus de se propager".[401] Some experts doubted the accuracy of the number of cases reported by the Chinese government, which repeatedly changed how it counted coronavirus cases, while others say it wasn’t likely a deliberate attempt to manipulate the data.[402][403][404] The Chinese government has also been accused of rejecting help from the US CDC and the WHO.[405]

Although criticisms have been levelled at the aggressive response of China to control the outbreak,[406] China's actions have also been praised by some foreign leaders such as U.S. President Donald Trump, and Russian president Vladimir Putin.[407][408] Trump later reversed himself, saying "I wish they could have told us earlier about what was going on inside," adding that China "was very secretive, and that's unfortunate."[409] The director of WHO Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus congratulated Chinese government "for the extraordinary measures it has taken to contain the outbreak",[410] and a later WHO report described China's response as "perhaps the most ambitious, agile and aggressive disease containment effort in history."[411] According to a media report on 16 March, the economy in China was very hard hit in the first two months of 2020 due to the measures taken by the government to curtail virus spread, and retail sales plunged 20.5%.[412]

South Korea

Coronavirus infection prevention tips banner in Seoul

COVID-19 was confirmed to have spread to South Korea on 20 January 2020 from China. There was a large increase in cases on 20 February,[413] potentially attributable to a gathering in Daegu of a new religious movement known as the Shincheonji Church of Jesus.[413][414][415]

42 Chinese Shincheonji devotees visiting Daegu from Wuhan China were suspected by some as propagating the outbreak.[416][417] As of 22 February, among 9,336 followers of the church, 1,261 or about 13% reported symptoms.[418]

South Korea declared the highest level of alert on 23 February 2020.[419] On 28 February, over 2,000 confirmed cases were reported in Korea,[420] rising to 3,150 on 29 February.[421] All South Korean military bases were on quarantine after tests confirmed that three soldiers were positive for the virus.[416] Airline schedules were also affected and therefore they were changed.[422][423]

South Korea introduced what was considered the largest and best-organised program in the world to screen the population for the virus, and isolate any infected people as well as tracing and quarantining those who contacted them.[424][425] Screening methods included a drive-thru testing for the virus with the results available the next day.[426] It is considered to be a success in controlling the outbreak despite not quarantining entire cities.[424][427]

The South Korean society was initially polarised with President Moon Jae-in's response to the crisis. Many Koreans signed petitions either calling for the impeachment of Moon over what they claimed is the government's mishandling of the outbreak, or praising strongly his response (allegedly pulled into a scandal involving organized online opinion rigging scheme by the Chinese living in South Korea).[428][429]

J'ai couru

Iran reported its first confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections on 19 February in Qom, where, according to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, two people had died later that day.[430][431] Early measures announced by the government included the cancellation of concerts and other cultural events,[432] sporting events,[433] and Friday prayers,[434] universities, higher education institutions and schools.[435] Iran allocated five trillion rials to combat the virus.[436] President Hassan Rouhani said on 26 February 2020 that there were no plans to quarantine areas affected by the outbreak, and only individuals would be quarantined.[437] Plans to limit travel between cities were announced in March.[438]Shia shrines in Qom remained open to pilgrims until 16 March 2020.[439][440]

Iran became a centre of the spread of the virus after China.[441][442] Amidst claims of a cover-up of the extent of the outbreak in the country,[443] over ten countries had traced their cases back to Iran by 28 February, indicating that the extent of the outbreak may be more severe than the 388 cases reported by the Iranian government by that date.[442][444] The Iranian Parliament was shut down, with 23 of its 290 members reported to have had tested positive for the virus on 3 March.[445] A number of senior government officials, as well as two members of the Parliament, have died from the disease.[446] On 15 March, the Iranian government reported 100 deaths in a single day, the most recorded since the outbreak began.[447]

Italie

The outbreak was confirmed to have spread to Italy on 31 January, when two Chinese tourists tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in Rome.[448] In response, the Italian government suspended all flights to and from China and declared a state of emergency.[449] On 31 January, the Italian Council of Ministers appointed Angelo Borrelli, head of the Civil Protection, as Special Commissioner for the COVID-19 Emergency.[450][451] An unassociated cluster of COVID-19 cases was later further detected starting with 16 confirmed cases in Lombardy on 21 February.[452]

On 22 February, the Council of Ministers announced a new decree-law to contain the outbreak, including quarantining more than 50,000 people from 11 different municipalities in northern Italy.[453] Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte said "In the outbreak areas, entry and exit will not be provided. Suspension of work activities and sports events has already been ordered in those areas."[454][455]

On 4 March, the Italian government ordered the full closure of all schools and universities nationwide as Italy reached 100 deaths. All major sporting events, including Serie A football matches, will be held behind closed doors until April.[456] On 9 March, all sport was suspended completely for at least one month.[457] On 11 March, Prime Minister Conte ordered stoppage of nearly all commercial activity except supermarkets and pharmacies.[458][459]

On 6 March, the Italian College of Anaesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) published medical ethics recommendations regarding triage protocols that might be employed.[460][461][462]

As of 22 March 2020[update], there were 59,138 confirmed cases, 5,476 deaths and 7,024 recoveries in Italy.[463][464] On 19 March, Italy overtook China as the country with the most coronavirus-related deaths in the world after reporting 3,405 fatalities from the pandemic.[465][466]

Espagne

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Spain on 31 January 2020, when a German tourist tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in La Gomera, Canary Islands.[467]

On 24 February, following a COVID-19 outbreak in Italy, Spain confirmed multiple cases related to the Italian clusters, originating from a medical doctor from Lombardy, Italy, who was on holiday in Tenerife.[468] Afterwards, multiple COVID-19 cases were detected in Tenerife involving people who had come in contact with the doctor. Other cases involving individuals who visited Italy were also discovered in mainland Spain.[469][470][471]

As of 23 March 2020[update], there have been 33,089 confirmed cases with 3,355 recoveries and 2,207 deaths in Spain according to authorities. At least 2,355 people hospitalised are in intensive care (834 in the Community of Madrid) and more than 350,000 tests for COVID-19 have been conducted.[472][473] Since 13 March 2020, there have been registered cases in the 50 provinces of the country. Only on the islands of La Graciosa (Canary Islands) and Formentera (Balearic Islands) has there been no registered positive cases.[472]

États Unis

Coronavirus in US counties[474]

The first known case in the United States of COVID-19 was confirmed in the Pacific Northwest state of Washington on 20 January 2020, in a man who had returned from Wuhan on 15 January.[475] The White House Coronavirus Task Force was established on 29 January.[476] On 31 January, the Trump administration declared a public health emergency,[477] and placed travel restrictions on entry for travellers from China.[478]

After the first death in the United States was reported in Washington state on 29 February,[479] its governor, Jay Inslee, declared a state of emergency,[480] an action that was followed by other states.[481][482][483] Schools in the Seattle area cancelled>

On 6 March, president Donald Trump signed the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, which provided $8.3 billion in emergency funding for federal agencies to respond to the outbreak.[486] Corporations imposed employee travel restrictions, cancelled conferences,[487] and encouraged employees to work from home.[488] Sports events and seasons were cancelled.[24][489]

On 11 March, Trump announced travel restrictions for most of Europe (excluding the United Kingdom) for 30 days, effective 13 March,[490] and on 14 March, he expanded the restrictions to include the United Kingdom and Ireland.[491] On 13 March, he declared a national emergency, which made federal funds available to respond to the crisis.[492] Beginning on 15 March, many businesses closed or reduced hours throughout the U.S. as a method to try to combat the virus.[493]

As of 23 March 2020[update], the epidemic was present in all 50 states, plus the District of Columbia. The number of confirmed cases in the U.S. rose to 39,371, with 467 deaths.[494][2]

The White House has been criticized for downplaying the threat and controlling the messaging by directing health officials and scientists to coordinate public statements and publications related to the virus with the office of Vice President Mike Pence.[495][496][497]

Royaume-Uni

The UK response to the virus first emerged as one of the most relaxed of the affected countries, and until 18 March 2020, the British government did not impose any form of social distancing or mass quarantine measures on its citizens.[498][499] On 15 March, it was reported that the UK government would no longer test individuals self-isolating with mild symptoms of coronavirus, however, it would test individuals seeking hospital treatment for the virus and those in long-term care facilities.[500] On 16 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson made an announcement advising against all non-essential travel and social contact, to include working from home where possible and avoiding venues such as pubs, restaurants and theatres.[501][502] The government imposed restrictions on 18 March which limited school attendance to only the children of those in selected professions, namely NHS employees, police and those vital to food supply.[503]

On 20 March, the government announced that all leisure establishments (pubs, gyms etc.) were to close as soon as possible,[504] and promised to pay up to 80% of workers' wages, to a limit of £2,500 per month, to prevent unemployment in the crisis.[505] The government has received criticism for the perceived lack of pace and intensity in its response to concerns faced by the public.[506][507][508] Only 23% of British adults were strictly following the government's coronavirus advice, a poll has found.[509]

On 22 March, the government asked those in the country with certain health conditions (an estimated 1.5 million) to self-isolate for 12 weeks. Identification and notification was to be coordinated by the National Health Service, with deliveries of medication, food, and household essentials by pharmacists and local governments, and at least initially paid for by the national government.[510]

International responses

An analysis of air travel patterns was used to map out and predict patterns of spread and was published in The Journal of Travel Medicine in mid-January 2020. Based on information from the International Air Transport Association (2018), Bangkok, Hong Kong, Tokyo and Taipei had the largest volume of travellers from Wuhan. Dubai, Sydney and Melbourne were also reported as popular destinations for people travelling from Wuhan. Bali was reported as least able in terms of preparedness, while cities in Australia were considered most able.[511][512]

There have been international comments that the 2020 Olympics should be moved from Japan or postponed. On 22 January, the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) announced that it would be moving the matches in the third round of the 2020 AFC Women's Olympic Qualifying Tournament from Wuhan to Nanjing, affecting the women's national team squads from Australia, China PR, Chinese Taipei and Thailand.[513] A few days later, the AFC announced that together with Football Federation Australia they would be moving the matches to Sydney.[514] The Asia-Pacific Olympic boxing qualifiers, which were originally set to be held in Wuhan from 3 to 14 February, were also cancelled and moved to Amman, Jordan to be held between 3 and 11 March.[515][516]

Australia released its Emergency Response Plan for Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) on 7 February. It states that much is yet to be discovered about COVID-19, and that Australia will emphasize border control and communication in its response to the pandemic.[517]

A worker disinfects an ambulance in Daegu, South Korea

Restrictions de voyage

Countries that have implemented a global travel ban in response to the COVID-19 pandemic

As a result of the outbreak, many countries and regions including most of the Schengen Area,[518] Armenia,[519] Australia,[520] India,[521] Iraq,[522][523] Indonesia,[524]Kazakhstan,[525] Kuwait,[526] Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, New Zealand, Philippines, Russia,[527] Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan,[528] Vietnam,[529] and the United States[530] have imposed temporary entry bans on Chinese citizens or recent visitors to China, or have ceased issuing visas and reimposed visa requirements on Chinese citizens.[531] Samoa started refusing entry to its own citizens who had previously been to China, attracting widespread condemnation over the legality of the decision.[532][533]

The European Union rejected the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel zone and introducing border controls with Italy,[534][535][536] which has been criticized by some European politicians.[537][538] After some EU member states announced complete closure of their national borders to foreign nationals,[539] the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said that "Certain controls may be justified, but general travel bans are not seen as being the most effective by the World Health Organization."[540]

Saudi Arabia temporarily banned foreigners from entering Mecca and Medina, two of Islam's holiest pilgrimage sites, to prevent the spread of coronavirus.[541] The United States suspended travel from the Schengen Area and later the Common Travel Area.[542] Many countries then started closing their borders to virtually all non-citizens or non-residents in rapid succession,[543] including India,[544] Slovakia,[545] Denmark,[546] Poland,[547] Lithuania,[548] Oman[549], United Arab Emirates and Russia.[550][551]

Evacuation of foreign citizens

Ukraine evacuates Ukrainian and foreign citizens from Wuhan

Owing to the effective quarantine of public transport in Wuhan and Hubei, several countries have planned to evacuate their citizens and diplomatic staff from the area, primarily through chartered flights of the home nation that have been provided clearance by Chinese authorities. Canada, the United States, Japan, India, France, Australia, Sri Lanka, Germany and Thailand were among the first to plan the evacuation of their citizens.[552] Pakistan has said that it will not be evacuating any citizens from China.[553] On 7 February, Brazil evacuated 34 Brazilians or family members in addition to four Poles, a Chinese person and an Indian citizen. The citizens of Poland, China and India deplaned in Poland, where the Brazilian plane made a stopover before following its route to Brazil. Brazilian citizens who went to Wuhan were quarantined at a military base near Brasília.[554][555][556] On the same day, 215 Canadians (176 from the first plane, and 39 from a second plane chartered by the US government) were evacuated from Wuhan to CFB Trenton to be quarantined for two weeks.[[[[citation requise]

On 11 February, another plane of 185 Canadians from Wuhan landed at CFB Trenton. Australian authorities evacuated 277 citizens on 3 and 4 February to the Christmas Island Detention Centre, which had been repurposed as a quarantine facility, where they remained for 14 days.[557][558][559] A New Zealand evacuation flight arrived in Auckland on 5 February; its passengers (including some from Australia and the Pacific) were quarantined at a naval base in Whangaparoa, north of Auckland.[560] The United States announced that it would evacuate Americans aboard the cruise ship Diamond Princess.[561] On 21 February, a plane carrying 129 Canadian passengers who had been evacuated from Diamond Princess landed in Trenton, Ontario.[562] The Indian government has scheduled its air force to evacuate its citizens from Iran.[563]

International aid

Digital billboard conveying support with the words "Be Strong China" in various languages at Shibuya in Tokyo on 10 February

On 5 February, the Chinese foreign ministry stated that 21 countries (including Belarus, Pakistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Egypt and Iran) had sent aid to China.[564] The US city of Pittsburgh announced plans to send medical aid to Wuhan, which is its sister city.[565] The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) also announced plans to provide help.[566] Some Chinese students at American universities have joined together to help send aid to virus-stricken parts of China, with a joint group in the greater Chicago area reportedly managing to send 50,000 N95 masks and 1,500 protection suits to hospitals in the Hubei province on 30 January.[567]

The humanitarian aid organization Direct Relief, in coordination with FedEx transportation and logistics support, sent 200,000 face masks along with other personal protective equipment, including gloves and gowns, by emergency airlift to the Wuhan Union Hospital by 30 January.[568] The Gates Foundation stated on 26 January that it would donate US$5 million in emergency funds to support the response in China, along with technical support for front-line responders.[569] On 5 February, Bill and Melinda Gates further announced a US$100 million donation to the WHO to fund vaccine research and treatment efforts along with protecting "at-risk populations in Africa and South Asia."[570]

Japan, in planning a flight to Wuhan to pick up Japanese nationals there, promised that the plane would bring aid supplies that, according to Japanese foreign minister Toshimitsu Motegi, would consist of "masks and protective suits for Chinese people as well as for Japanese nationals."[571] On 26 January, the plane arrived in Wuhan, donating its supply of one million face masks to the city.[572] Among the aid supplies were 20,000 protective suits for medical staff across Hubei donated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government.[573]

On 28 January, the city of Mito donated 50,000 masks to its sister city of Chongqing, and on 6 February, the city of Okayama sent 22,000 masks to Luoyang, its sister city. On 10 February, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) of Japan made a symbolic deduction of 5,000 yen from the March salary of every LDP parliamentarian, a total of two million yen, to donate to China; party secretary general Toshihiro Nikai statied that "For Japan, when it sees a virus outbreak in China, it is like seeing a relative or neighbour suffering. Japanese people are willing to help China and hope the outbreak will pass as soon as possible."[574]

Other countries have also announced aid efforts. Malaysia announced a donation of 18 million medical gloves to China.[575] The Philippine Red Cross donated $1.4 million worth of Philippine-made face masks to Wuhan.[576] Turkey dispatched medical equipment,[577] and Germany delivered various medical supplies including 10,000 Hazmat suits.[578] On 19 February, the Singapore Red Cross announced that it would send $2.26 million worth of aid to China, consisting of protective material and training.[579]

In March 2020, China and Russia sent medical supplies and experts to help Italy deal with its coronavirus outbreak.[580][581]Businessman Jack Ma sent 1.1 million testing kits, 6 million face masks and 60,000 protective suits to Addis Ababa for distribution by the African Union [582], as concern grows that poor health infrastructure and high levels of HIV in the region [583], could precipitate severe disruption.

WHO response measures

The WHO has commended the efforts of Chinese authorities in managing and containing the epidemic, with Director-General Tedros Adhanom expressing "confidence in China's approach to controlling the epidemic" and calling for the public to "remain calm".[584] The WHO noted the contrast between the 2003 epidemic, where Chinese authorities were accused of secrecy that impeded prevention and containment efforts, and the current crisis where the central government "has provided regular updates to avoid panic ahead of Lunar New Year holidays."[585]

On 23 January, in reaction to the central authorities' decision to implement a transportation ban in Wuhan, WHO representative Gauden Galea remarked that while it was "certainly not a recommendation the WHO has made," it was also "a very important indication of the commitment to contain the epidemic in the place where it is most concentrated" and called it "unprecedented in public health history."[585]

On 30 January, following confirmation of human-to-human transmission outside China and the increase in the number of cases in other countries, the WHO declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), the sixth PHEIC since the measure was first invoked during the 2009 swine flu pandemic. Tedros clarified that the PHEIC, in this case, was "not a vote of no confidence in China," but because of the risk of global spread, especially to low- and middle-income countries without robust health systems.[360][586] In response to the implementations of travel restrictions, Tedros stated that "there is no reason for measures that unnecessarily interfere with international travel and trade" and that "WHO doesn't recommend limiting trade and movement."[587]

On 5 February, the WHO appealed to the global community for a $675 million contribution to fund strategic preparedness in low-income countries, citing the urgency to support those countries which "do not have the systems in place to detect people who have contracted the virus, even if it were to emerge." Tedros further made statements declaring that "We are only as strong as our weakest link" and urged the international community to "invest today or pay more later."[588][589]

On 11 February, the WHO in a press conference established COVID-19 as the name of the disease. On the same day, Tedros stated that UN Secretary-General António Guterres had agreed to provide the "power of the entire UN system in the response." A UN Crisis Management Team was activated as a result, allowing co-ordination of the entire United Nations response, which the WHO states will allow them to "focus on the health response while the other agencies can bring their expertise to bear on the wider social, economic and developmental implications of the outbreak."[590]

WHO representatives holding joint meeting with Tehran administrators

On 14 February, a WHO-led Joint Mission Team with China was activated to provide international and WHO experts to touch ground in China to assist in the domestic management and evaluate "the severity and the transmissibility of the disease" by hosting workshops and meetings with key national-level institutions to conduct field visits to assess the "impact of response activities at provincial and county levels, including urban and rural settings."[591]

On 25 February, the WHO declared that "the world should do more to prepare for a possible coronavirus pandemic," stating that while it was still too early to call it a pandemic, countries should nonetheless be "in a phase of preparedness."[592] In response to a developing outbreak in Iran, the WHO sent a Joint Mission Team there on the same day to assess the situation.[593]

On 28 February, WHO officials said that the coronavirus threat assessment at the global level would be raised from "high" to "very high," its highest level of alert and risk assessment. Mike Ryan, executive director of WHO's health emergencies program, warned in a statement that "This is a reality check for every government on the planet: Wake up. Get ready. This virus may be on its way and you need to be ready," urging that the right response measures could help the world avoid "the worst of it." Ryan further stated that the current data did not warrant public health officials to declare a global pandemic, saying that such a declaration would mean "we're essentially accepting that every human on the planet will be exposed to that virus."[594]

On 11 March, the WHO declared the coronavirus outbreak an official pandemic.[595] The Director-General said that WHO was "deeply concerned both by the alarming levels of spread and severity, and by the alarming levels of inaction."[596]

Impacts

Politique

A number of provincial-level administrators of the Communist Party of China (CPC) were dismissed over their handling of the quarantine efforts in Central China, a sign of discontent with the political establishment's response to the outbreak in those regions. Some experts believe this is likely in a move to protect Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping from people's anger over the coronavirus outbreak.[597]

The Italian government has criticised the European Union's lack of solidarity with coronavirus-affected Italy.[598][599]

The outbreak has prompted Le Boston Globe to call for the US to adopt social policies common in other wealthy countries, including universal health care, universal child care, paid family leave, and higher levels of funding for public health.[600]

The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been heavily affected by the virus.[601][602] Iran's President Hassan Rouhani wrote a public letter to world leaders asking for help, saying that his country doesn't have access to international markets due to the United States sanctions against Iran.[603]

Diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea worsened due to the 2020 coronavirus pandemic.[604] South Korea criticised Japan's "ambiguous and passive quarantine efforts".[605]

Éducation

Learners affected by school closures caused by COVID-19 as of 18 March 2020[22]

Localised school closures

Country-wide school closures

As of 20 March, more than 960 million children and other students were affected by temporary or indefinite government-mandated school closures.[22][606][607] Of these, 105 countries shut schools nationwide, affecting students who would normally attend pre-primary to upper-secondary>

Even when school closures were temporary, the measures carried high social and economic costs, affecting people across communities, but their impact was more severe for disadvantaged children and their families, causing interrupted learning, compromised nutrition, childcare problems and consequent economic cost to families who could not work.[22][609]

In response to school closures, UNESCO recommended the use of distance learning programs, open educational applications and platforms that schools and teachers can use to reach learners remotely and limit the disruption of education.[608]

Socioeconomics

Coronavirus fears have led to panic buying of essentials in Singapore and elsewhere, including toilet paper, dried and/or instant noodles, bread, rice, vegetables, disinfectant and rubbing alcohol

The coronavirus outbreak has been attributed to several instances of supply shortages, stemming from: globally increased usage of equipment to fight the outbreaks, panic buying and disruption to factory and logistic operations. The United States Food and Drug Administration has issued warnings about shortages to drugs and medical equipment due to increased consumer demand and supplier disruption.[610] Several localities, such as the United States,[611] Italy,[612] and Hong Kong,[613] also witnessed panic buying that led to shelves being cleared of grocery essentials such as food, toilet paper and bottled water, inducing supply shortages.[614] The technology industry in particular has been warning about delays to shipments of electronic goods.[615] According to WHO director-general Tedros Adhanom, the demand for personal protection equipment has risen 100-fold and this demand has led to the increase in prices of up to twenty times the normal price and also induced delays on the supply of medical items for four to six months.[616][617] This has also caused a shortage of personal protective equipment worldwide, with the WHO warning that this will endanger health workers.[618]

In Australia the pandemic has provided a new opportunity for daigou shoppers to sell Australian product into China.[619] This activity has left locals without essential supplies.[620]

As mainland China is a major economy and a manufacturing hub, the viral outbreak has been seen to pose a major destabilizing threat to the global economy. Agathe Demarais of the Economist Intelligence Unit has forecast that markets will remain volatile until a clearer image emerges on potential outcomes. In January 2020, some analysts estimated that the economic fallout of the epidemic on global growth could surpass that of the SARS outbreak.[621] One estimate from an expert at Washington University in St. Louis gave a $300+ billion impact on the world's supply chain that could last up to two years.[622]Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries reportedly "scrambled" after a steep decline in oil prices due to lower demand from China.[623] Global stock markets fell on 24 February due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside mainland China.[624][625] On 27 February, due to mounting worries about the coronavirus outbreak, various US stock indexes including the NASDAQ-100, the S&P 500 Index and the Dow Jones Industrial Average, posted their sharpest falls since 2008, with the Dow falling 1,191 points, the largest one-day drop since the financial crisis of 2007–08.[626] All three indexes ended the week down more than 10%.[627] On 28 February, Scope Ratings GmbH affirmed China's sovereign credit rating, but maintained a Negative Outlook.[628] Stocks plunged again based on coronavirus fears, the largest fall being on 16 March 2020.[629] Many consider an economic recession to be likely.[630][631][632]

Tourism is one of the worst affected sectors due to travel bans, closing of public places including travel attractions, and advise of governments against any travel all over the world. As a consequence, numerous airlines have cancelled flights due to lower demand, including British Airways, China Eastern and Qantas, while British regional airline Flybe collapsed.[633] Several train stations and ferry ports have also been closed.[634] The epidemic coincided with the Chunyun, a major travel season associated with the Chinese New Year holiday. A number of events involving large crowds were cancelled by national and regional governments, including annual New Year festivals, with private companies also independently closing their shops and tourist attractions such as Hong Kong Disneyland and Shanghai Disneyland.[635][636] Many Lunar New Year events and tourist attractions have been closed to prevent mass gatherings, including the Forbidden City in Beijing and traditional temple fairs.[637] In 24 of China's 31 provinces, municipalities and regions, authorities extended the New Year's holiday to 10 February, instructing most workplaces not to re-open until that date.[638][639] These regions represented 80% of the country's GDP and 90% of exports.[639] Hong Kong raised its infectious disease response level to the highest and declared an emergency, closing schools until March and cancelling its New Year celebrations.[640][641]

Despite the high prevalence of coronavirus cases in Northern Italy and the Wuhan region, and the ensuing high demand for food products, both areas have been spared from acute food shortages. Effective measures by China and Italy against the hoarding and illicit trade of critical products have been carried out with success, avoiding acute food shortages that were anticipated in Europe as well as in North America. Northern Italy with its significant agricultural production has not seen a large reduction, but prices may increase according to industry representatives. Empty food shelves were only encountered temporarily, even in Wuhan city, while Chinese government officials released pork reserves to assure sufficient nourishment of the population. Similar laws exist in Italy, that require food producers to keep reserves for such emergencies.[642][643]

Environment

Due to the coronavirus outbreak's impact on travel and industry, many regions experienced a drop in air pollution. The Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air reported that methods to contain the spread of coronavirus, such as quarantines and travel bans, resulted in a 25% reduction of carbon emission in China.[644][645] In the first month of lockdowns, China produced approximately 200 million fewer metric tons of carbon dioxide than the same period in 2019, due to the reduction in air traffic, oil refining, and coal consumption.[645] Between 1 January and 11 March 2020, the European Space Agency observed a marked decline in nitrous oxide emissions from cars, power plants and factories in the Po Valley region in northern Italy, coinciding with lockdowns in the region.[646] In Venice, the water in the canals cleared up and experienced an increased presence of fish and waterfowl; the Venice mayor's office clarified that the increase in water clarity was due to the settling of sediment that is disturbed by boat traffic and mentioned the decrease in air pollution along the waterways.[647]

Despite a temporary decline in global carbon emissions, the International Energy Agency warned that the economic turmoil caused by the coronavirus outbreak may prevent or delay companies from investing in green energy.[648] However, extended quarantine periods have boosted adoption of remote work policies.[649][650]

As a consequence of the unprecedented use of disposable face masks, significant numbers are entering the natural environment and in particular, to rivers and seawater. In some cases, the masks have been washed onto beaches where they are accumulating. This accumulation has been reported on beaches in Hong Kong and is expected to add to the worldwide burden of plastic waste and the detrimental effects of this waste to marine life.[651]

Culture

A sign on a Baptist Christian church that has been temporarily closed, due to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.

Another recent and rapidly accelerating fallout of the disease is the cancellation of religious services, major events in sports, the film industry, and other societal events, such as music festivals and concerts, technology conferences, fashion shows and sports.[652][653]

The Vatican announced that Holy Week observances in Rome, which occur during the last week of the Christian penitential season of Lent, have been cancelled.[652] Many dioceses have recommended older Christians to stay at home rather than attending Mass on Sundays; some churches have made church services available via radio, online livestreaming or television while others are offering drive-in worship.[654][655][652] With the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rome closing its churches and chapels and St. Peter's Square is emptied of Christian pilgrims,[652] other religious bodies also cancelled services and limiting public gatherings in churches, mosques, synagogues and gurdwaras.[652] Iran's Health Ministry announced the cancellation of Friday prayers in areas affected by the outbreak and shrines were later closed,[656][440] while Saudi Arabia banned the entry of foreign pilgrims as well as its residents to the holy sites in Mecca and Medina.[657][658]

The pandemic has caused, at the very least, the most significant disruption to the worldwide sporting calendar since the Second World War. Most major sporting events scheduled to take place now or in the next few weeks have been either cancelled or postponed, including the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League,[659]2019–20 Premier League,[660]UEFA Euro 2020, 2019–20 NBA season,[661] and 2019–20 NHL season.[662] The outbreak has been a concern for the 2020 Summer Olympics which is scheduled to take place in Tokyo starting at the end of July.[663]

While casinos and other gaming venues worldwide have been closed and live poker tournaments have been either postponed or cancelled, gamblers moved online with many online gambling sites reporting doubling of their rate of new sign-ups.[664]

The entertainment industry has also been affected, with various music groups suspending or cancelling concert tours.[665][666] Many large theatres such as those on Broadway also suspended all performances.[667] Some artists have explored ways to continue to produce and share work over the internet as an alternative to traditional live performance, such as live streaming concerts[668] or creating web-based "festivals" for artists to perform, distribute and publicize their work.[669]

Potential long-term impacts

The political, cultural, and socio-economic impacts of the pandemic may together cause major changes in human society.[670] They include the rise in remote work, localization of global supply chains, and increased political polarization.[670]

The pandemic has been claimed to be causing a "revolution in working from home" as major corporations have transitioned to telecommuting arrangements in order to slow the spread of the virus.[671] This effect has also been observed in the rise of online learning in higher education.[672] Additionally, there may also be a reduction in business travel and international conferences, with virtual substitutes replacing them.[673] A more widespread reversal of globalization has also been discussed, especially in regard to supply chains.[674] The German Economy Minister has supported localization of supply chains in reaction to the pandemic.[675]

Xenophobia and racism

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, heightened prejudice, xenophobia and racism have been noted toward people of Chinese and other East Asian descent, as incidents of fear, suspicion and hostility have been observed in many countries, particularly in Europe, North America and the Asia-Pacific region.[677][678][679] Some countries in Africa saw rising anti-Chinese sentiment as well.[680][681] There has been support for the Chinese, both on and offline, towards those in virus-stricken areas,[682][683][684][685] but many residents of Wuhan and Hubei have reported experiencing discrimination based on their regional origin.[686][687][688] Since the progression of the outbreak to new hot-spot countries, people from Italy, the center of Europe's coronavirus outbreak, have also been subjected to suspicion and xenophobia.[689][690]

Citizens in numerous countries, including Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, and South Korea, have signed petitions lobbying their government to ban Chinese people from entering their country.[691][692][693][694] In Japan, the hashtag #ChineseDontComeToJapan had been trending on Twitter.[695] Chinese people in the United Kingdom said they were facing increasing levels of racist abuse, with cases of assaults reported.[696][697] Protesters in Ukraine attacked buses carrying Ukrainian and foreign evacuees from Wuhan.[698] Students from Northeast India, which shares a border with China, who study in major Indian cities have reportedly experienced harassment related to the coronavirus outbreak.[699] The Bharatiya Janata Party's State unit president in West Bengal Dilip Ghosh stated that the Chinese had destroyed nature and "that's why the God took revenge against them." The remarks were later condemned by the Chinese consulate in Kolkata, calling it "erroneous."[700]

As the pandemic has progressed, there have also been isolated instances of prejudice against Westerners, particularly Western tourists accused of importing the disease. Most notably, a post to the Twitter account of the Thai Health Minister, Anutin Charnvirakul, urged Thais to be "more careful of Westerners than Asians".[708] It claimed many Western tourists refused to wear masks and "dressed dirtily and never shower".[708] The post attracted negative feedback in Thailand[709] and the UK[710] and was quickly removed. Mr Charnvirakulk claimed he was not responsible for it.[711]

On 30 January, the WHO's Emergency Committee issued a statement advising all countries to be mindful of the "principles of Article 3 of the IHR (the International Health Regulations)", which the WHO says is a caution against "actions that promote stigma or discrimination" when conducting national response measures to the outbreak.[360]

Possible duration

Predicting the peak and ultimate duration of the outbreak, which may differ in different places, is uncertain. Maciej Boni of Penn State University stated, "Left unchecked, infectious outbreaks typically plateau and then start to decline when the disease runs out of available hosts. But it's almost impossible to make any sensible projection right now about when that will be".[712]Zhong Nanshan, the Chinese government's senior medical adviser, argued that WHO advice should be followed everywhere and that "If all countries could get mobilized, it could be over by June."[712] Justin Lessler of John Hopkins University stated "if we flatten the curve, it may peak in July or in August. If we don't flatten the curve, it'd probably peak much sooner but in a very unpleasant way".[713]

Adam Kucharski of London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine stated that SARS-CoV-2 "is going to be circulating, potentially for a year or two, so we need to be thinking on those time scales ... At the moment, it seems the only way to sustainably reduce transmission are really severe unsustainable measures."[714] According to Kucharski, social distancing measures would need to be continued for the course of the outbreak, until a vaccine was developed, or until sufficient herd immunity is in place. According to the Imperial College study led by Neil Ferguson, social distancing and other measures would be required "until a vaccine becomes available (potentially 18 months or more)".[715]

Return to pre-outbreak measures may be gradual according to Krutika Kuppalli of the Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security, who stated, "Once things get better, we will have to take a step-wise approach toward letting up on these measures and see how things go to prevent things from getting worse again."[714]

Information dissemination

Open-access papers

Owing to the urgency of the epidemic, many scientific publishers made scientific papers related to the outbreak available with open access.[717] Some scientists chose to share their results quickly on preprint servers such as bioRxiv,[718] while archivists created an open access database of over 5,000 papers about coronaviruses, which they downloaded from Sci-Hub.[719]
In addition, the platform Outbreak Science Rapid PREreview was launched to perform rapid open peer review of preprints related to emerging outbreaks.[720]

Medical care providers, including intensivists and pulmonologists, involved in the Free Open Access Medicine movement rapidly compiled both disease information and treatment procedures in the Internet Book of Critical Care which was quickly circulated by institutions including Princeton and UPenn.[721][722][723]

Open research database

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Allen Institute for AI has partnered with leading research groups to prepare and distribute a machine readable dataset named COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19)[724] a free resource of over 29,000 scholarly articles, including over 13,000 with full text, about COVID-19 and the coronavirus family of viruses for use by the global research community.[725][726]

Citizen science

Misinformation

After the initial outbreak, conspiracy theories and misinformation[731] spread online regarding the origin and scale of the COVID-19 coronavirus.[732] Various social media posts claimed the virus was a bio-weapon, a population control scheme, or the result of a spy operation.[733][734][735]

Facebook, Google and Twitter announced that they would take stringent measures against possible misinformation.[736] In a blog post, Facebook stated they would remove content flagged by leading global health organizations and local authorities that violates its content policy on misinformation leading to "physical harm."[737]

Iranian cleric Seyyed Mohammad Saeedi accused President Trump of targeting Qom with coronavirus to fulfil his previous promise of retaliation against Iranian cultural sites.[757] Iranian researcher Ali Akbar Raefipour claimed that the coronavirus was part of a "hybrid warfare" program waged by the United States on Iran and China.[758] Iran's Press TV asserted that "Zionist elements developed a deadlier strain of coronavirus against Iran".[759] According to the Middle East Media Research Institute, numerous writers in the Arabic media have promoted the conspiracy theory that COVID-19 was deliberately created and spread by the United States, as "part of an economic and psychological war waged by the US against China with the aim of weakening it and presenting it as a backward country and a source of diseases".[760]

Voir également

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Sources attribution

Lectures complémentaires

Liens externes

Government health agencies

Data and maps

  • Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports by the World Health Organization (official numbers of confirmed cases by country)
  • WHO map of cases by country
  • Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases and historical data by Johns Hopkins University
  • Covid-19 latest news and resources by The BMJ
  • COVID-19 Resource Centre by The Lancet
  • Coronavirus Resource Hub by Cell Press
  • Coronavirus Observer based on Johns Hopkins University data
  • Google Scholar list of COVID-19 research resources, with links to research hubs by the CDC, NEJM, JAMA, The Lancet, Cell, The BMJ, Elsevier, OUP, La nature, Wiley, CUP, and medRxiv
  • World Travel Restrictions based on WFP data

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